Diagnostics of Cervical Cancer

This type of malignant gynecological pathology is getting “younger”. If earlier the target of
cervical cancer were women over the age of 40 years, today the disease is diagnosed
in women of all ages. Among the pathologies of oncological nature found in gynecology,
this type of cancer occupies a leading position.
Cancer foci are transformed in the epithelial layer. Prerequisites are dysplastic processes
in the cervical part. It is possible to prevent the degeneration of cells into malignant cells on
timeto identify and cure signs of dysplasia.

Types of cervical cancer, oncology diagnostic methods

In gynecology there are two types of oncological pathology cervix of uterus. The first one i
s most often occurring is planocellular cancer.
The second type is an adenocarcinoma develops in tissues therefore its diagnosing is complicated.
The new growth can progress on endophytic or exophytic type inside or in out of it. It is very
important to reveal a problem at an early stage when the malignancy responds to treatment.
At the last stages percentage of survival of patients is extremely low.

Ways to diagnose a tumor of the cervix

In this case for diagnostics the complex examination allowing to obtain
a maximum of information on a new growth is conducted.
The first signs come to light at visual inspection by the gynecologist.
Changes in tissues are noticeable with the naked eye, therefore it is possible to reveal the location.
• Oncocytology analysis is screening of the sample taken as a smear.
• Colposcopy is used to identify symptoms of pathology. Dye solution is used.
• Biopsy is used when other information is inconclusive.
The extraction of tissues and their analysis is made.
• Scraping is the additional method allowing to reveal tumors in the thickenedtissues.
• Transvaginal ultrasonography can be combined with doppler sonography.
• X-ray, CT, MRI are auxiliary techniques for detection of metastases in the next bodies.
• Laboratory diagnostics of level of oncomarkers of SCC and SA 125.
• PTsRdiagnostics for detection of HPV is a screening tool to find structural changes
in a cervix epithelium.
The first two types of analyses are the main ones for detection of cervical cancer and
quite often it is sufficient for diagnosis.

Recommendations of the German doctors of age of the initialcheck up

Annual check up for detection of cervical cancer is recommended to women over 20 years.
In a zone of risk are woman with erosive processes and patients with oncology
in the family anamnesis who need observation of the specialist. Inflammatory processes,
frequent change of sexual partners can also become the reason of impacting
tissues which can gain malignant character subsequently.
Work at hazardous productions, ecologically bad areas and stress are considered oncofactors.

Cancer of a Thyroid Gland: specifics of diagnostics

This disease occurs quite often among all other typescancers. This is caused by high sensitivity
of thyroid cells to a hormonal imbalance and to ecological conditions.
There is disagreement on numbers of cases ranging from 6.6 to 54.2%. It is almost impossible
to reveal a new growth at early stages without special methods of diagnostics.

Types of cancer formations of a thyroid gland and specifics of diagnostics

Anaplastic type is an aggressive, metastatic type.
This type is difficult to detect and it is inert for radiation and chemotherapy;
by the time of detection it is not operable.

Malignancies of “thyroid gland” are divided in 8 types:

• Anaplastic (undifferentiated thyroid tumor);
• Medullary (mutation of parafollicular cells);
• Papillary (kind of a carcinoma);
• Follicular cancer (a thyroid form with follicular formation);
• Squamous and cellular carcinoma (kind of planocellular pathology);
• Lymphoma (effects lymph nodes);
• Planocellular cancer;
• Sarcoma.

Medullary cancer is called family type, if the immediate family member has it,
the risk of oncology is very high.
The medullary form differs in the high speed of spread of metastases and
low sensitivity to drugs and radiation!
Anaplastic type of cancer cells, follicular and papillary at early stages of development imitate cells
of benign formations, therefore it is very difficult to reveal the cancerous nature of the formation.

Ways of diagnostics of thyroid glandcancer

The doctor collects the detailed anamnesis. The patients who had radiation at early
age are subject to special attention.
• Physical (visual and physical) examination is done. Thyroid gland is well palpated,
however small formations present at more thick tissue can be detected only by ultrasonography.
• Observation in dynamics allows to monitor growth of a tumor, formation of metastases in nearby
lymph nodes.
• Ultrasonography helps to estimate a form, its density, mobility.
Histology of samples of biopsy is one of the first ways of identification of the latent forms of cancer.
In most cases the papillary type turns into this type
• Biopsy and cytologic analysis.
• X-ray and a computer tomography are applied as additional methods to study the spread of metastases.

Early diagnostics will be effective if patient visits endocrinologist at the time of detection of symptoms connected
with unusual feelings in a throat: feeling of a foreign subject, the complicated swallowing,
hoarseness of a voice, trouble breathing.

Recommendations of the German doctors of age of the first screening

The German specialists recommend to conduct full examination to persons of 35 years of agevery 2 years.
Thyroid gland cancer is closely connected with hormonal problems of a female reproductive system.
Men with family history of thyroid gland cancer need also visit the specialist regularly.

Diagnostics of kidney cancer: specifics of carrying out studies

This type of cancer takes leading position on mortality rates. The Nephrocellular Cancer (NC)
develops in the epithelial cells of renal tubules and belongs to urological tumors.
Characteristic manifestation of this disease is the damage of the nearby lymph nodes located on
a lymph flow from a kidney; another manifestation of a disease is unpredictable localization of metastases.
Among all malignant new growths in adult population NC makes 3% of all cases.

Types of NC: specifics of kidney cancer diagnostics
There are 5 kinds of a disease, depending on the involvement of cells of a certain type.
• Clear cell cancer makes up the most often, up to 85% of cases,diagnosed.
• On the second place is papillary, which is characterized by multiple damage of kidney tissues.
• Chromophobe, up to 10% of cases, is the most sluggish on development.
• Oncocytekidney cancer makes up to 5% of cases and manifests in rare formation of metastases.
• Cancer of collecting ducts makes up to 2% of diagnoses. It develops in young people and quickly progresses.
• Most often people of 50-70 years old get cancer, men being twice more susceptive than women.

Diagnostics of NC disease
Since kidneys are rather small-sized organ, any new growth has an impact on quality of its function. If patient sees
doctor on time and disease is diagnosed at an initial stage, this allows to treat it successfully.
General research and survey
Visual evaluation and a palpation is problematic, however, suspicions about the malignant nature of a disease can be
received even from the general blood tests and urine. For this reason, it is important for the patient to see a doctor
in case of any painful symptoms in a waist, or problems with the urinogenital area.

Device diagnostic methods

Use of diagnostic devices allows to receive a full picture about a condition of the organ: cavities and ducts,
trace the of extent of damage done by a tumor, a condition of adjacent lymph nodes.
• Ultrasonography, including all abdominal organs;
• Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI);
• Urography with use of contrast agents;
• Radionuclide scanning;
• Computer Tomography (CT).
In 90% of cases ultrasonography and CT allow to differentiate a malignant tumor. MRI is usedfor detection
of metastases.
Recommendations of the German doctors regarding the age of the first screening of NC
As men are more prone to the risk of development of kidney cancer, the German specialists recommend
undergoingcheckups annually to all men who reached age of 45 years. Also, it is necessary to be examined
if you have chronic kidney diseases, work with asbestos, cadmium, solvents. Statistics shows that residents
of megalopolises of cold regionsare at risk of NC.

Features of diagnostics of liver cancer

One of the most aggressive types of cancer which detection at early stages is carried out extremely seldom.
The patient asks for the help when the tumor reached the big sizes and impacted body interfering with
its normal functioning.
The oncopathology is inclined to fast development. Most often the disease comes to light when performing
planned ultrasonography,
CT, MPIfor other indications.

Types of cancer of liver and diagnostic methods
Liver cancer is subdivided into groups of primary and secondary types. Secondary is the most widespread,
but it means that
the oncological disease prime cause is in another organ, and metastases spread to the liver.

Primary types are:

• Angiosarcoma;
• Hepatoblastoma;
• Hepatocellular carcinoma;
• Undifferentiated sarcoma;
• Fibrolamellar carcinoma;
• Cholangiocellular liver cancer;
• Cystadenocarcinoma;
• Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.

It is important to understand that the oncology of a liver can strike people of all age. If the angiocarcinoma
is characteristic of elderly population, then the hepatoblastoma chooses as a target of children up to 4 years.
The fibrolamelar carcinoma impacts people up to 35 years old, active and able-bodied.

Specifics of diagnostics

• The palpation and visual inspection in this case are ineffective, but the doctor collects the anamnesis,
• interviewing the patient. Often people address with complaints as pain in hypochondrium or a stomach.
• For obtaining detailed information CT is used and Ultrasound;
• Laboratory blood test, including blood test on the alpha-fetoprotein, samples of cells of a liver taken at a biopsy.
• The puncture means that the stomach wall puncture is carried out by a special needle probe.
• Laparoscopy is one more method allowing not only to carry out sampling of tissues, but also to evaluate
• a condition of internal organ. It is carried out through a small cut.
• Also the X-ray, MRI for definition of metastases in the bones, lungs, surrounding the tissues of a liver.
• The liver abounds with blood vessels; the angiography will show whether there are changes.

Blood test is obligatory: signs of inflammatory process, hemoglobin level (low levels), increase in number of leukocytes,
oncomarker come to light.

People in a risk zone

Liver cancer is the disease having own “preferences”:
First of allthose are patients with liver diseases;
• Diabetics;
• Having genetic predisposition;
• Working at hazardous productions;
• Elderly people;
• Abusing smoking and alcohol.
Referring to the specialist can become decisive in cancer therapy. Pain or discomfort are a signal which cannot be ignored.

Recommendations of the German doctors for initial diagnostics

For people over 35 years regular checks upevery 2 years with blood tests including for glucose level are recommended.
Such procedure will help to reveal a disease atearly stages on indirect signs and on time to conduct examination.
Health care guidelines also mean exams of children and young people.

Diagnostics of Breast Cancer: specifics of the exams

Women of 50 years and older are in risk group. Men are also subject to breast cancer, but is much more
rare  only 1% of all cases.Glandular tissues, lobes and ducts, are affected. The disease carries
hereditary and hormone-dependent factors for this which is why it is important to timely identify and
determine the type of malignant neoplasm in the breast.

The special danger is constituted by metastasis into bone tissues that can complicate treatment considerably.

Types of breast cancer and diagnostic methods of a disease

Malignancies in a mammary gland can have nodal and diffusion character, separating nipple cancer.
There are 17 types of a disease based on the structure:
• Adenoid cystic;
• Apocrine cancer;
• Intra pro-current and lobular (invasive, noninvasive);
• Cystic hypersecretory carcinoma;
• Colloid cancer;
• Cribrosa;
• Medullary;
• Metaplastic or planocellular;
• Papillary;
• Primary carcinoid tumor, apudoma;
• Osteoclast cells;
• With signs of inflammatory process;
• Secretory carcinoma (juvenile);
• Tubular carcinoma.

Because of variety of malignant new growths, the oncologist has to define precisely tumor type
to plan treatment and to predict recurrence probability. For diagnostics a set of methods is used:
• External inspection, collecting anamnesis;
• Using devices, mammography, ductography, ultrasonography;
• Immunohistochemical methods, biopsy, oncomarker tests;
• CT and MRI with administration of contrast agent.

Among all types of cancer there are with slow progression (Pedzhet’s disease) and others that demand fast reaction.
Tumors of non-filtering type often develop as a result of removal of benign formation. Methods allow to
define formation localization, the involvement of surrounding tissues and lymph nodes. The possibility of
a resection of a tumor, that is surgical removal, is evaluated. Also, examination of a skeleton due to disease
metastasis into a bone tissue is conducted. Histologic studies help to define sensitivity of cancer cells to drugs.

Recommendations of the German doctors at first diagnostics

Every year physicians register more cases of a disease. There is a lot of factors of influence, including
lack of pregnancies and the short period of a lactation in view of stresses, financial situation and need
of going back to work. All this undermines immune system allowing development of malignant cells.
Since most successfully breast cancer is treated at an early stages, German experts recommend annual
check up of mammary glands to women over 30 years. From 50-70 years mammography
screenings are recommended at an interval of 2 years.

Considering that breast cancer often arises as a result of problems with a reproductive system,
it is necessary to check annually health of ovaries and balance of a hormonal background.

Diagnostics of Skin Carcinoma: specifics of its conduction


Any malignancies of epithelium are considered a cancer. Disease frequency is 1:4,000,
people of southern regions and people with light skin who moved from northern areas with low intensity of
UV-radiation to climate with UV high rates are in risk zone. This disease has aggressive forms and forms that i
t is possible to cure 100% without consequences of a recurrence. Elderly people and persons with reduced
immunity are subject to a skin carcinoma.
As the disease can appear on the skin of the head, it is difficult to detect it at first.
In this case a routine exam and diagnostics of suspicious formations allow to reveal malignancies
at an initial stage that will considerably increase chances of success to fight the disease.

The most widespread types of a skin carcinoma andways of diagnostics
Among the most frequent tumors are melanoma, bazalioma, and planocellular cancer. There are 2 more types
of cancers of Merkel cells and sarcoma of skin. The last 2 types are rare but appear to be aggressive with metastasis.
Only the experienced oncologist-dermatologist can make the exact diagnosis. Diagnostic methods are subdivided
into the analysis of superficial formationsand also studying deep metastases. The problem of diagnostics
is not only in confirmation or ruling out of the diagnosis, but also in definition of the tumor type, which will help
to predict the speed of development and scale of damage to the patient.

Primary exam
The first assessment of the pathological site occurs visually. Malignancies of skin are visible with the naked eye.
They can change a form, coloring of a pigment, to get inflamed, be shelled, ulcerated. If visual signs indicate
the probability of the malignant nature of formation, the doctor orders additional diagnostic procedures.

Laboratory tests
• First of all, dermatoscopy is done. The structure of a new growth in the polarized light gives the mass of information.
• Biopsy is an extraction of a small part of tissue for a study under a microscope. This type of diagnostics
• is not applied to the tumors which are sharply reacting to mechanical damages.
• The confocal laser scanning microscopy is a biopsy alternative, does not include site traumatization.

Tests using equipment
Ultrasonography and tomography will help to reveal a picture of new growths of the skin with distribution
of cancer cells deep into body.
The positron emission tomography using contrast allows to literally highlight cancer cells, detecting exact localization
of new growths.

Recommendations of the German doctors at first diagnostics
If you have no genetic predisposition, your phenotype corresponds to regional features of the climate,
you do not abuse exposure to the sun and you use protective equipment, then it is recommended
to have early diagnostics of skin carcinoma every two years for men and women of age 35 yearsold and older.
For the people working in hazardous jobs, in the open air in summer months or who are exposed to harmful
radiation such screenings should be regular, regardless of the age.

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