Diagnostics of Intestines Cancer

The malignant tumor of thick and a rectum colon makes the TOP of the most widespread cancers today.
40% of cases of results in lethal outcome within a year. Detection of this disease is not always timely because
the slow growth of a tumor does not cause any symptoms for a long time.The efficiency of treatment will depend
on how timely diagnostics was done and how correctly accurate diagnosis
was given based on the diagnostics results.

What does include diagnostics of cancer?

The first step is consultation with the doctor. Collecting the anamnesis and a rectal palpation are primary exams.
After that additional tests are ordered:
• Irrigoscopy or colonoscopy;
• Biopsy;
• Ultrasonography (ultrasonography);
• Blood tests, fecal occult blood test, check for tumor markers, scanning.

Irrigoscopyis the x-ray made after filling of intestines with contrast substance.
Colonoscopy is a exam of a large intestine on all its extent with use of the special probe (colonoscope).
During the procedure the extraction of suspicious samples of tissue for histology
or removal of small outgrowths on mucous – polyps are possible.
Colonoscopy is one of the most informative methods of diagnostics at suspicion of intestines cancer.
Biopsyis an important stage at diagnosis of cancer of any kind. It is almost painless procedure
in the course of which the small piece of the changed tissue “is pinched off” from an intestinal
wall for further studying of its character. It is especially ordered to patients who have polyps
as these formations can develop into malignant ones.
Ultrasonographyhelps to estimate spread of a tumor and also presence of metastases in a liver.
But more exact information will be given by MRI of pelvic area or CT of all body.
They give the layer-by-layer image of body thanks to what it is possible to determine the tumor sizes,
its prevalence and educations in other bodies.
Why it is important to undergo full exam?
The described diagnostic methods can show not only cancer of intestines, but also other often met diseases:
• Nonspecific Ulcer Colitis;
• Intestinal impassibility;
• Crohn’s Disease;
• Polyps in intestines which can develop into malignant forms.
And if the first three manifests certain symptoms, then polyps and cancer at the first stages d
o not manifest in any way. It is possible to reveal them only in the course of diagnostics.
Modern methods provide reliability of the obtained data.

How often to check intestines?
According to the recommendations of doctors from Germany, women and men age 50 need
to have intestine check ups every year. Fecal occult blood test should be done annually before 54 years.
n addition, men over 50 years and women over 55 years need to have 2 colonoscopy every 10 years.
The fecal occult blood test should be done every two years.
These recommendations will reduce the risk of development
of new growths or will give the chance to remove them at an early stage.

Diagnostics of Lung Cancer

Other names for lung cancer are bronchogenic cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma.
This is a malignant neoplasm in the lung, which grows from the epithelium of the bronchi.
The statistics is relentless, and at the moment this type of tumor is the second most common worldwide.
How the diagnosis made?
An examination is considered complete if all tests and instrumental diagnostics are done.
The first stage is consultation
During the consultation with a specialist, anamnesis is collected. It should include information
about transferred, chronic diseases. Be sure to clarify the fact of smoking, how old habit, how often
the patient smokes throughout the day as well the environment in which a person lives, hazardous
professions are also should be taken into account.

A very important factor is the presence or absence of hereditary predisposition,
which is also specified at the consultation.

Instrumental diagnostics

For accurate determination of the diagnosis, stage of the disease, its prevalence basic methods are used:
• X-ray;
• CT (computed tomography);
• MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
• Bronchoscopy (in some cases);
• Biopsy.
The very first examination will be radiography. Allows to determine the presence of carcinoma in 90%
of cases at later stages. This is due to the fact that it is possible to reliably determine a neoplasm by this
method only if it reaches 1-2 cm. CT and MRI results are more accurate.
These methods allow the detection of new growths at the earliest stages, when no symptoms have
to appeared yet. They give a layer-by-layer image of the studied organ which makes it possible to determine
the exact localization of the tumor, and therefore evaluate its operability.Bronchoscopy
is an endoscopic examination. Conveniently, it gives the opportunity to see the condition of the bronchi,
to accurately determine the place where the tumor is located and allows determination of its prevalence.
During this examination, a sample of the affected tissue for further histological examination can be taken.
Biopsy is the last and final stage of diagnostics. Based on its results a diagnosis is made. Tissue sampling
can occur not only during bronchoscopy, but also by needle aspiration, pleural puncture, etc.

The Importance of timely diagnosis
If you regularly undergo examinations, you can identify not only lung cancer at an early stage,
but also other diseases. The most common (in addition to the described) include are:
• Bronchial asthma;
• Bronchitis;
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
COPD, today, affects mainly smokers and people working with harmful substances.

Preventive examinations
An effective way to protect yourself from the development of serious diseases is
to undergo preventive examinations.
German doctors recommend taking an X-ray each year (a small dose of radiation will not do any harm).
90% of lung cancer is due to smoking. Since smoking is one of the risk factors for cancer,
spirometry is required for smokers, also once a year.
This is an important examination based on checking the functional state of the lungs.

Diagnostics of prostate cancer

This disease is also called prostate carcinoma. The tumor usually grows slowly, and has a tendency to metastasize.
It is one of the most common prostate diseases.
Diagnostics of carcinoma
It occurs in several stages:
1. Visit to urologist.
2. Delivery of additional analyzes and exams.
3. Prostate biopsy.

During the visit, in addition to collecting anamnesis, the doctor performs rectal digital prostate diagnosis. During this,
you can detect the thickening of the gland. After that, additional tests are already assigned.
First, the PSA level (prostate specific antigen) is checked. It is a tumor marker. To determine it, the patient gives blood.
Ultrasound of the prostate is the next stage of diagnostic. The examination uses a rectal probe that detects:
• Prostate volume;
• The presence of nodules;
• Thickening.
A modern and more accurate diagnostic method is multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clearly captures
the pathological changes of the prostate.

The final diagnostic method is biopsy. Only after receiving the results of biopsy a diagnosis of prostate cancer can be made,
since there are other diseases that provoke thickening of the gland. For this purpose, a special instrument is used to take
prostate tissue from its different parts and send it for histological examination.
Individually, to clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe various urine tests, angiography and other tests.
According to the test results, an individual therapy regimen is prescribed. The most effective treatment is in the early
of the disease.

What does the diagnostics give?
To detect the slightest changes in the prostate gland on time is to protect yourself from the development of dangerous
The most common prostate diseases are:
1. Prostatitis, an inflammatory process of the organ. It affects about 35% of men who have reached the age of 55 years.
2. Adenoma – benign prostatic hyperplasia. Among men who crossed the 60 years, 30% are susceptible to this disease. At the
age of 80 years it is 90%.
3. Carcinoma of the prostate. Among men older than 50 years old, it occurs in every 7th man.
The latter disease is the most common cause of death among the elderly. Prostate cancer in the early stages causes no
symptoms, so it is imperative to undergo preventive check-ups.
Routine examinations
Many men do not know how often to undergo examination of the genitals and prostate, or hesitate because of the specifics
of the examination.
Doctors from Germany advise to undergo such an examination every year.
For men over 45 years, palpation of the lymph nodes is required. However,
statistics show that only 20% of men adhere to this rule.

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