Diagnosis of Erectile Dysfunction

Such a diagnosis is made if the mans body is not able to maintain an erection in 25% of sexual acts. Erectile
dysfunction is one of the most common disorders among men of different ages.

Fact: Worldwide statistics show that among men over 40 years of age, 150 million suffer from this disorder.

In order to properly prescribe treatment, it is necessary to understand the cause of the disorder. Simple pills
to improve erection in most cases do not solve dysfunction. The cause of this problem may be, for example,
vascular disease. If you do not identify it on time, then a stroke or heart attack is possible in a few years.
Detailed diagnostics gives the specialist the opportunity to draw up the correct treatment plan for the cause
of erectile dysfunction, thus tokill two birds with one stone and avoid serious consequences.

Approximate exam plan
Individually, the doctor order number of examinations that need to be done get the diagnosis. Usually,
it looks like this:
1. Analysis of the history of the disease.
2. Laboratory studies.
3. Physical diagnostics (examination, palpation, etc., not only of the penis, but also of the chest, abdomen).
4. Additional tests and exams.
Thus, consultation with a doctor helps to determine when sexual problems have arisen, whether there have
been stressful situations before, how this condition has developed, etc. Even minor details can help
in drawing up a complete picture.
Very important: a conversation with the patient can indicate psychological problems, then he is redirected
to a specialist. Of all cases of impotence 40% have a psychological cause!
Laboratory tests include blood tests, most often hormones. Blood glucose and lipid levels are also checked
(diabetes and hyperlipidemia lead to erectile dysfunction).

Specifying diagnostic methods
If previous tests and consultation did not give grounds for identifying the cause of erectile dysfunction,special
methods are ordered:
• Biothesiometrydetermines the level of sensitivity of the penis;
• Electromyography studies muscle potential;
• Ultrasound examination of the genital organs;
• Doppler / duplex sonography studies blood circulation in the area of interest;
• Intracavernous injection test checks the functionality of an erection.
• Registration of penile tumescence night checks the erectile mechanism.

In most cases, the results of these studies will receive enough information to make a diagnosis. However,
additional examination of the thyroid gland sometimes is required if there is a suspicion of endocrine disease.
Erectile dysfunction is treated, but not all men know it. Only 6% of cases do not have successful resolution
of the diagnosis and treatment. The rest of the cases, the doctor quickly finds the cause of the problem and
prescribes an effective therapy.

Diagnostics of Neurological Diseases

A doctor can make a neurological diagnosis only on the basis of the collected history, the psycho-neurological
condition of the person, as well as the results of laboratory tests and instrumental diagnostic methods.
Important: According to statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO),
one-seventh of the world’s population (approximately 1 billion) suffers from neurological disorders
of varying complexity.

Laboratory diagnostics
General and biochemical blood and urine tests are prescribed, ELISA biomarkers are checked. PCR diagnostics
of viruses are performed to exclude or confirm the viral etiology of a neurological disorder. Hormones are also
tested, a blood clotting test (coagulogram) is done.
In some cases, it is necessary to analyze cerebrospinal fluid, for example, in case of meningitis.
During the conversation with the patient, doctor assesses patient’s general condition. May perform some
tests to evaluate reflexes and coordination.

Instrumental diagnostics
For babies, a special ultrasound diagnostic,neurosonography, method is used. It is done on babies up to a year.
Ultrasonic waves penetrate through a large spring that grows just before the year of age. This allows you to identify
anomalies of development, tumors, circulatory disorders, and other pathologies.
MRI,Magnetic Resonance Imaging, is considered one of the most informative methods. It creates high-quality
multi-layered images of the brain. This allows the doctor to identify in the early stages of the tumor, stroke, organ
disease and most vascular abnormalities.
CT (Computed Tomography) is widely used in the diagnostics of neurological diseases and also provides
ayer-by-layer images of the brain. Sometimes, to increase the detail, a special contrast agent is introduced.

For the diagnosis of epilepsy and other pathological conditions, electroencephalography (EEG) is prescribed.

Other popular methods:
• USDG (Doppler ultrasound) is used for study of blood vessels and blood flow velocity;
• Checking the arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels of the brain by using angiography, allows you to identify
• thrombosis, vascular stenosis, hemorrhage (hemorrhage), tumors, etc .;
• Electroneuromyography gives an idea about peripheral nervous system functioning, shows where the nerve
• damage can be, allows to detect the speed of neuroimpulsepassage;
• Rheoencephalography determines vascular tone, degree of blood filling and other indicators
in different parts of the brain.

All modern diagnostic methods are painless and informative. Those of them that involve radiation do not cause
any harm to the body. The results of these examinations become the basis for developing treatment regimen.

Infertility Diagnostics

Infertility can be diagnosed both in a man and a woman. Such a diagnosis is made if pregnancy does not occur
within a year of active sex life with a partner, without the use of contraceptives.
Difficulties with conception occur in 20% of couples.
First of all, man should have an exam. Only after exclusion of his infertility, a woman is examined.
What is included in the exam of a man?
The first key analysis is spermogram. This is an ejaculate test that shows the fertility of sperm (fertility)
Important: approximately 50% of infertility cases of a couple, man gets the diagnosis.
Thorough tests for sexually transmitted infections should be done. Many of them lead to infertility, for example,
chlamydia, trichomoniasis and gonorrhea. They directly affect sperm motility.
Postcoital test is also carried out (or Shuvarsky’s test). Some time after sexual intercourse, a smear of cervical
mucus is taken from a woman’s cervix and the number of motile spermatozoa is determined in it.

Woman examination
The list of examinations that a woman needs to take is much longer. Includes items such as:
1. Collecting and studying the anamnesis
2. Screening for infections.
3. Study of causative factors.
4. Blood tests.
5. Ultrasound, x-rays, exams of the genitals “from the inside.”

During a visit with a gynecologist, information about the patient’s life, past diseases, surgeries,
and taking hormonal drugs is collected. An important role is might have history of menstruation, presence of
bad habits, inflammatory processes.
As for men, it is obligatory for women to have done tests for sexually transmitted infections.
Infertility in women is caused by the same pathogens as in men.

Evaluation of the factors that may be the cause of infertility include:
• Checking rectal temperature for 3 months (indicating ovulation);
• Radiography of the skull (may show a pituitary tumor). For the same purpose prescribed ophthalmic studies.

A blood test is taken to check the level of hormones. Infertility disorders in testosterone, prolactin, adrenal
hormones (DEA) and thyroid levels can be implicated.
To exclude abnormal development of the uterus and some gynecological diseases, an ultrasound is performed.
X-rays are carried out with the introduction of a contrast agent. This shows the size of the uterine mucosa and
its structure, makes it possible to evaluate the functionality of the fallopian tubes.
This procedure is called hysterosalpingography (GHA).
In some cases, laparoscopy is performed. This is an invasive diagnostic method inserting
an instrument with optics into the abdominal cavity. Condition of the uterus and ovaries are examined this way
After a full examination, the doctor estimates the chances of getting pregnant and recommends treatment options.

Ophthalmologic Diagnostics

Experts advise to have annual eye exams. This rule applies to every person. By adhering to it,
it is possible to prevent the development of diseases, most of which lead to blindness.
Standard examination includes several procedures that allow to identify common diseases
such as myopia, astigmatism, conjunctivitis, cataracts, etc.
Important: accurate diagnosis is possible only with an ophthalmologist in a specially equipped office.

Effective diagnostic methods
These examinations are most often used by doctors to determine eye diseases.

1. Visometry.
The very first proven method for determining visual acuity. To do this, the patient looks at a special
table and names the objects on the table that doctors points to.
If no abnormalities are detected, the doctor records the results. In case of abnormalities,
a special frame and lenses are used (the so-called correction),
and only after that the indicators are recorded.
Visual impairment is one of the most important symptoms indicating many eye diseases.

2. Color vision test.
For this test tables are also used. It helps to identify protanopia, deuteranopia and color weakness.
These conditions are varieties of color blindness.

3. The method of Girshberg.
Helps to determine the angle of strabismus with the help of reflection of light on the cornea.

4. Tonometry.
For patients who are over the age of 40, tonometry will be a mandatory examination.
With its help measure the intraocular pressure. Helps to reveal glaucoma.
The risk of glaucoma increases after the specified age.

5. Perimetry.
What diseases can be diagnosed during this examination:
• Partial atrophy of the optic nerve;
• Glaucoma.
This method checks the peripheral vision of a person.

6. Biomicroscopy.
This is a method of examination of the conjunctiva and cornea with multiple magnification.
Also allows you to explore deeper structures. These include the iris, lens and vitreous body.

7. Ophthalmoscopy.
Allows inspection of the inner surface of the eye, assess the condition
of the retina and blood vessels in the fundus.
The results of this study are among the most important in the diagnosis of various eye diseases.

8. Refractometry.
Necessary for the detection of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism examination.

9. Washing the lacrimal ducts.
The procedure aimed at checking their patency. It is also used for medicinal purposes.
In case the listed methods are not enough to determine the exact diagnosis,
he ophthalmologist will prescribe other examinations which are done with special equipment.
To undergo such a diagnosis,
it is necessary to visit an ophthalmological center or a special department in a hospital.

Diagnostics of epilepsy

The diagnostic methods developed to date allowaccurately to determine the presence of epilepsy.First of all,
this is done with special devices.

Electroencephalography (EEG)
This method is the main for the diagnosis of epilepsy. Special electrodes attached to the patient’s head record
the bioelectric activity of the brain.The results are printed on paper or recorded as a computer file.
It is informative enough since people with such problem often have specific changes in brain activity
(even a certain time before and after an attack).But in some cases, EEG is not enough for accurate diagnosis.
Some people do not have specific changes after an epileptic seizure, or they occur
in deep structures that the device simply does not capture.

Important: This test is best taken 24 hours after the onset of the attack.

Computed, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography
Methods showing changes in brain structures. First of all, they allow to reveal cysts, tumors,
aneurysms and other pathologies.
With the help of CT, you can detect areas with abnormal bioelectric activity that indicate epilepsy

Experimental methods
One of these is Magnetic Encephalography (MEG). With its help, magnetic signals of neurons are recorded,
even from deep structures of the brain. Thus, activity of the brain is monitored in real time.
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows biochemical processes in the brain tissue. Only an experienced
specialist can decipher the results of these studies. Based on them, the diagnosis of “epilepsy” is made or declined.

General examinations
These include:
• Laboratory diagnostic methods;
• Collection of patients medical history;
• Neuropsychological tests.

Laboratory methods include blood tests which allow detection of biochemical disorders, check for genetic abnormalities
and other factors that may directly or indirectly indicate the disease.
During the conversation with the patient, the doctor collects information about his/her complaints and clarifies the features
of the disease, hereditary predisposition to epilepsy.
Details on the nature of the attacks allows to make the correct diagnosis.
Collected medical history can also help the doctor to draw preliminary conclusions
about exactly what part of the brain is affected.
Neuropsychological tests allow evaluation of patients memory, speech, attentiveness, emotional background.
This allows you to determine the degree epilepsy impact on
the psychological and neurological state of a person, as well as to clarify its type
All data obtained as a result of examinations are used to determine correct therapy.

Orthopedic Diagnostics

In orthopedics there are a lot of diagnostic methods that allows to make a diagnosis, identify the cause
of the disease and prescribe the correct treatment. Interestingly, in this industry, not only imaging
methods (for example, x-rays), but also palpation and functional tests are used. Therefore,
orthopedic diagnostics is divided into manual and imaging ones.

Manual diagnostics
The musculoskeletal system of each person has individual characteristics. A general examination helps
the doctor to get acquainted with them and determine exactly where the pathology was located.
These methods include:
1. Palpation – in other words, palpation of joints, muscles, spine.
2. Evaluation of the reserve of soft tissue movement.
3. Detection of sites that respond with pain to pressing (trigger points)
4. Use of special tools (for example, goniometers, to measure angles during movement of the joint)
5. Functional tests, when during the movements of the patient the doctor sees some irregularities,
imperceptible at rest.
The effectiveness of these diagnostic methods largely depends on the experience of the doctor,
so they do not always give a complete picture of the pathology.

Imaging methods
Allows to see œfrom the inside❠various pathologies of bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments.
Most popular methods are:
1. X-ray helps to detect fractures, arthrosis. The digital version of it has less radiation for a person.
2. Computed Tomography (CT) gives a clearer image, often used as a refinement method.
3. Ultrasonography is carried out mainly for examination of muscles and other soft tissues, detection
of fluid accumulation sites, which made it popular method in sport medicine
4. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) gives a three-dimensional image of the area under
investigationwhich makes this method well-informative

Specific examinations
Optical spinal examination is one of the special diagnostic methods. The program displays a
three-dimensional model of the spine, which lets a specialist to see functional and structural
pathologies of the spine
Correct selection of orthopedic liners or special shoes is possible after analyzing the weight on the foot.
This method appeared with the development of computer technology.
Bone density is recommended for an elderly patient which allows early detection of osteoporosis.

What are the diseases detected withdiagnostics?
A full examination allows identification of any known pathology of musculoskeletal system.
The most frequent of them are:
• Dislocations;
• Incorrectly accreted fractures;
• Curvature of the spine (scoliosis, kyphosis, etc.);
• Arthritis, arthrosis and their consequences (for example, ankylosis);
• Limb deformities;
• Stretching, tearing and other damage to soft tissue.

Modern computer methods in conjunction with manual examination by an orthopedist provide the most
complete picture of the state of the musculoskeletal system and allows determination of the correct therapy.

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