Diagnostics of the Lungs

Successful diagnosis and selection of the correct lung treatment regimen is completely dependent
on the results of special studies. Anamnesis is not enough,
s very often the same symptoms occur in different diseases.
Why diagnostics is so important?
Among all chronic diseases, more than 50% accountedfor the bronchi and lungs.
Problems with respiratory organs occur not only among smokers, but also among people living
in places with poor ecology or having  professions.
Diagnosis allows early detection of pneumonia, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease),
and malignant neoplasms in the lungs.
Effective are modern methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, asthma and bronchitis.
Also during examinations, the impact of injuries of the respiratory organs are studied and
it allows to evaluate the efficacy of therapy.

X-ray Diagnostics
Several methods fall into this category.
Each of them is carried out using an X-ray machine, but differs in accuracy and image quality,
as well as some technological features.

• Roentgenoscopy.The image is viewed on the screen but does not show minor pathologies.
• Radiography.The image is printed on a film, is a more accurate method,
shows even the minor changes.
• Fluorography is used more often as a method of routine inspection, since the image
is displayed either on poor-quality film or on a monitor.
• Computed Tomography (CT) gives a clear picture of the respiratory organs and lymph nodes.
• Bronchography is an X-ray with the introduction of a contrast agent.

More accurate methods can detect tumors, foci of inflammation and other pathological changes
in the respiratory organs.
Interestingly during diagnostics using modern devices, patient receives the most minimal
dose of radiation, which does not harm health.
Endoscopic Examinations

They consist in the introduction of a special instrument into the respiratory organ. These include:
• Bronchoscopy.
• Thoracoscopy.

At the first examination, the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi is examined.
At the second examination the pleural cavity is studied.
Diagnostics of Lung Function
There are two main methods. Checkup of pulmonary aeration that shows the volume of the lungs,
helps to determine respiratory failure in adults and children. Pleural puncture is carried out
to take the contents of the pleural cavity for further study.
Interestingly, ultrasound is rarely used as an independent diagnostic method.
It is necessary mainly to control the puncture procedure or drainage of the pleural cavity.
There are also laboratory methods used for diagnostics of lungs condition.
These are a microscopic and bacterioscopic examination of sputum to detect tuberculosis,
parasites, and other pathologies.
General exams of the respiratory organs on regular basis
as a preventive measure is recommended by specialists.

Modern Non-Invasive and Invasive Methods of Cardiac Diagnostics

Cardiovascular diseases are almost asymptomatic. According to WHO, cardiovascular diseases takes lives
of over 17 million people each year. That is how many men and women die each year from heart attacks and
strokes. In this case, doctors say – 80% of cases could have been prevented with timely modern diagnosis.

Types of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, specifics of cardiac diagnostics
Over 600 million people in the world suffer from hypertension and high blood pressure. Such problems greatly
increase the risk of stroke and heart attack. The most common heart diseases are:
• CHD;
• Rheumatic heart disease;
• Congenital heart defect;
• Deep vein thrombosis;
• Pathologies of peripheral arteries and blood vessels of the brain, causing heart problems.
To determine cardiac diagnosis, comprehensive studies are conducted, including taking readings of cardiac
activity during the day, as well as one-time data collection. Collection of labs, instrumental methods, as well
as tests involving physical activity are used.
To conduct cardiac diagnosis, conduct comprehensive studies, including taking readings of cardiac activity
during the day, as well as one-time data removal. Applied laboratory, instrumental methods, including research
using physical activity.

Diagnostics of Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels
Modern medicine uses a wide range of scientific approaches to identify pathologies of the heart and blood
vessels at an early stage.

Non-invasive methods
• Laboratory blood tests for markers indicating a predisposition to heart failure or the risk of a heart attack.
It is also possible to identify pathogens if such have become the cause of the pathology.
• Echocardiography (ECHO) allows to assess the development of pathology in case of suspected heart failure.
• Electrocardiogram (ECG) reveals not only acute, but also chronic heart problems.
• By recording the heart rate using an ECG in real time, it is possible to identify and receive confirmations of
cardiac arrhythmias.
• Spiroergometry allows you to assess physical capability by measuring respiratory gases during the exercise.
• CT scan allows to obtain a three-dimensional model showing an internal structure of the heart, to track
connections of the processes occurring in the system. Scans can be done with contrast that will allow to
visualize blood vessels system.
• Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (C-MRI) allows to identify the processes in the heart, to
differentiate tissues, to assess the quality of the organ.
• Myocardial scintigraphy evaluates the quality of blood flow and vitality of the heart muscle.

Invasive methods
• Studies using a catheter. The introduction of the catheter allows not only to obtain information about the condition
of the vessels and the heart itself, but also to take tissue samples and carry out treatment.
• Intracoronary pressure measurement. The procedure allows to determine the limitations of the blood flow in the vessel.
• Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS). A special probe is inserted into the coronary vessels with the help of a catheter and
transmits information via ultrasonic waves.
• Coronary angiography. X-ray based study using a contrast agent to visualize the vessels of the heart.
Non-invasive methods are painless for the patient. While invasive methods are performed by means of small puncture,
there are not traumatic

Recommendations of German doctors about the age of the initial cardiac diagnosis
Statistics indicate a tendency for heart disease to affect young and middle-aged people. In the presence of diabetes, obesity,
habit of smoking even a slight complaint cannot be ignored.
Annual preventive visit to a cardiologist are recommended for people over 35 years old.

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