Diagnostics of Breast Cancer: specifics of the exams

Women of 50 years and older are in risk group. Men are also subject to breast cancer, but is much more
rare  only 1% of all cases.Glandular tissues, lobes and ducts, are affected. The disease carries
hereditary and hormone-dependent factors for this which is why it is important to timely identify and
determine the type of malignant neoplasm in the breast.

The special danger is constituted by metastasis into bone tissues that can complicate treatment considerably.

Types of breast cancer and diagnostic methods of a disease

Malignancies in a mammary gland can have nodal and diffusion character, separating nipple cancer.
There are 17 types of a disease based on the structure:
• Adenoid cystic;
• Apocrine cancer;
• Intra pro-current and lobular (invasive, noninvasive);
• Cystic hypersecretory carcinoma;
• Colloid cancer;
• Cribrosa;
• Medullary;
• Metaplastic or planocellular;
• Papillary;
• Primary carcinoid tumor, apudoma;
• Osteoclast cells;
• With signs of inflammatory process;
• Secretory carcinoma (juvenile);
• Tubular carcinoma.

Because of variety of malignant new growths, the oncologist has to define precisely tumor type
to plan treatment and to predict recurrence probability. For diagnostics a set of methods is used:
• External inspection, collecting anamnesis;
• Using devices, mammography, ductography, ultrasonography;
• Immunohistochemical methods, biopsy, oncomarker tests;
• CT and MRI with administration of contrast agent.

Among all types of cancer there are with slow progression (Pedzhet’s disease) and others that demand fast reaction.
Tumors of non-filtering type often develop as a result of removal of benign formation. Methods allow to
define formation localization, the involvement of surrounding tissues and lymph nodes. The possibility of
a resection of a tumor, that is surgical removal, is evaluated. Also, examination of a skeleton due to disease
metastasis into a bone tissue is conducted. Histologic studies help to define sensitivity of cancer cells to drugs.

Recommendations of the German doctors at first diagnostics

Every year physicians register more cases of a disease. There is a lot of factors of influence, including
lack of pregnancies and the short period of a lactation in view of stresses, financial situation and need
of going back to work. All this undermines immune system allowing development of malignant cells.
Since most successfully breast cancer is treated at an early stages, German experts recommend annual
check up of mammary glands to women over 30 years. From 50-70 years mammography
screenings are recommended at an interval of 2 years.

Considering that breast cancer often arises as a result of problems with a reproductive system,
it is necessary to check annually health of ovaries and balance of a hormonal background.

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