Diagnostics of Lung Cancer

Other names for lung cancer are bronchogenic cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma.
This is a malignant neoplasm in the lung, which grows from the epithelium of the bronchi.
The statistics is relentless, and at the moment this type of tumor is the second most common worldwide.
How the diagnosis made?
An examination is considered complete if all tests and instrumental diagnostics are done.
The first stage is consultation
During the consultation with a specialist, anamnesis is collected. It should include information
about transferred, chronic diseases. Be sure to clarify the fact of smoking, how old habit, how often
the patient smokes throughout the day as well the environment in which a person lives, hazardous
professions are also should be taken into account.

A very important factor is the presence or absence of hereditary predisposition,
which is also specified at the consultation.

Instrumental diagnostics

For accurate determination of the diagnosis, stage of the disease, its prevalence basic methods are used:
• X-ray;
• CT (computed tomography);
• MRI (magnetic resonance imaging);
• Bronchoscopy (in some cases);
• Biopsy.
The very first examination will be radiography. Allows to determine the presence of carcinoma in 90%
of cases at later stages. This is due to the fact that it is possible to reliably determine a neoplasm by this
method only if it reaches 1-2 cm. CT and MRI results are more accurate.
These methods allow the detection of new growths at the earliest stages, when no symptoms have
to appeared yet. They give a layer-by-layer image of the studied organ which makes it possible to determine
the exact localization of the tumor, and therefore evaluate its operability.Bronchoscopy
is an endoscopic examination. Conveniently, it gives the opportunity to see the condition of the bronchi,
to accurately determine the place where the tumor is located and allows determination of its prevalence.
During this examination, a sample of the affected tissue for further histological examination can be taken.
Biopsy is the last and final stage of diagnostics. Based on its results a diagnosis is made. Tissue sampling
can occur not only during bronchoscopy, but also by needle aspiration, pleural puncture, etc.

The Importance of timely diagnosis
If you regularly undergo examinations, you can identify not only lung cancer at an early stage,
but also other diseases. The most common (in addition to the described) include are:
• Bronchial asthma;
• Bronchitis;
• Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
COPD, today, affects mainly smokers and people working with harmful substances.

Preventive examinations
An effective way to protect yourself from the development of serious diseases is
to undergo preventive examinations.
German doctors recommend taking an X-ray each year (a small dose of radiation will not do any harm).
90% of lung cancer is due to smoking. Since smoking is one of the risk factors for cancer,
spirometry is required for smokers, also once a year.
This is an important examination based on checking the functional state of the lungs.

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