Diagnostics of Skin Carcinoma: specifics of its conduction

Any malignancies of epithelium are considered a cancer. Disease frequency is 1:4,000,
people of southern regions and people with light skin who moved from northern areas with low intensity of
UV-radiation to climate with UV high rates are in risk zone. This disease has aggressive forms and forms that i
t is possible to cure 100% without consequences of a recurrence. Elderly people and persons with reduced
immunity are subject to a skin carcinoma.
As the disease can appear on the skin of the head, it is difficult to detect it at first.
In this case a routine exam and diagnostics of suspicious formations allow to reveal malignancies
at an initial stage that will considerably increase chances of success to fight the disease.

The most widespread types of a skin carcinoma andways of diagnostics
Among the most frequent tumors are melanoma, bazalioma, and planocellular cancer. There are 2 more types
of cancers of Merkel cells and sarcoma of skin. The last 2 types are rare but appear to be aggressive with metastasis.
Only the experienced oncologist-dermatologist can make the exact diagnosis. Diagnostic methods are subdivided
into the analysis of superficial formationsand also studying deep metastases. The problem of diagnostics
is not only in confirmation or ruling out of the diagnosis, but also in definition of the tumor type, which will help
to predict the speed of development and scale of damage to the patient.

Primary exam
The first assessment of the pathological site occurs visually. Malignancies of skin are visible with the naked eye.
They can change a form, coloring of a pigment, to get inflamed, be shelled, ulcerated. If visual signs indicate
the probability of the malignant nature of formation, the doctor orders additional diagnostic procedures.

Laboratory tests
• First of all, dermatoscopy is done. The structure of a new growth in the polarized light gives the mass of information.
• Biopsy is an extraction of a small part of tissue for a study under a microscope. This type of diagnostics
• is not applied to the tumors which are sharply reacting to mechanical damages.
• The confocal laser scanning microscopy is a biopsy alternative, does not include site traumatization.

Tests using equipment
Ultrasonography and tomography will help to reveal a picture of new growths of the skin with distribution
of cancer cells deep into body.
The positron emission tomography using contrast allows to literally highlight cancer cells, detecting exact localization
of new growths.

Recommendations of the German doctors at first diagnostics
If you have no genetic predisposition, your phenotype corresponds to regional features of the climate,
you do not abuse exposure to the sun and you use protective equipment, then it is recommended
to have early diagnostics of skin carcinoma every two years for men and women of age 35 yearsold and older.
For the people working in hazardous jobs, in the open air in summer months or who are exposed to harmful
radiation such screenings should be regular, regardless of the age.

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