Gastrointestinal examination methods for many people are difficult because they cause a number of unpleasant
sensations. But, despite that such a diagnostics makes it possible to identify all known diseases
of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), from gastritis to malignant tumors
The methods are also convenient because simultaneously with the examination one can take a sample
of biological tissue for histopathological examination or remove small neoplasms
So-called evaluation of the upper GI tract. It is carried out by oral insertion of the gastroscope. During the
procedure, cavity of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum are examined. It gives the opportunity to
diagnose gastritis, ulcers, neoplasms. If necessary, biopsy can be done.
The examination of the lower GI tract is performed using a colonoscope, administered rectally. It provides full
xamination as the length of the colonoscope is 160 cm. Makes it possible to examine large intestine along the
entire length. With this device it is also possible to collect biological material. If during the study polyps
(growths on the intestinal walls) are found, they are removed with the same tool.
Important: polyps in the colon are harbingers of cancer, so their removal is quite appropriate.
The duration of the procedure depends on the anatomical features of the intestine, as well as the presence of
various bends and adhesions. Sometimes the procedure is performed under general anesthesia
Sigmoidoscopy as an alternative to colonoscopy
If it is impossible to perform a colonoscopy, an examination of the intestine is carried out at a length of 60 cm
from the anus (rectum and sigmoid colon), called sigmoidoscopy.
The method is also quite informative, allowing to find:
• Source of bleeding;
• Foci of inflammation;
• Various neoplasms in the intestines.
The procedure is more gentle than a colonoscopy, it requires less thorough cleansing of fecal masses.
It is prescribed in case of blood in the stool and other atypical secretions, pain in the anus.
The abbreviation stands for Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography. The study is conducted to check
the bile ducts (choledoch) and pancreas. With it, you can diagnose or cure stenosis, blockage of the duct with a stone.
In this case, the endoscopic device is introduced orally, a radiopaque substance is introduced into the ducts.
An x-ray takes high-quality images of this area.
As part of the exam, a surgery can be performed to remove stones found in the ducts.
It is also possible to conduct a biopsy and eliminate the narrowing of the duct.
The listed methods are the most reliable ways to determine the diagnosis, prevent irreversible changes and choose
the right treatment. Only a qualified doctor can interpret the results of examinations.