Infertility can be diagnosed both in a man and a woman. Such a diagnosis is made if pregnancy does not occur
within a year of active sex life with a partner, without the use of contraceptives.
Difficulties with conception occur in 20% of couples.
First of all, man should have an exam. Only after exclusion of his infertility, a woman is examined.
What is included in the exam of a man?
The first key analysis is spermogram. This is an ejaculate test that shows the fertility of sperm (fertility)
Important: approximately 50% of infertility cases of a couple, man gets the diagnosis.
Thorough tests for sexually transmitted infections should be done. Many of them lead to infertility, for example,
chlamydia, trichomoniasis and gonorrhea. They directly affect sperm motility.
Postcoital test is also carried out (or Shuvarsky’s test). Some time after sexual intercourse, a smear of cervical
mucus is taken from a woman’s cervix and the number of motile spermatozoa is determined in it.
The list of examinations that a woman needs to take is much longer. Includes items such as:
1. Collecting and studying the anamnesis
2. Screening for infections.
3. Study of causative factors.
4. Blood tests.
5. Ultrasound, x-rays, exams of the genitals “from the inside.”
During a visit with a gynecologist, information about the patient’s life, past diseases, surgeries,
and taking hormonal drugs is collected. An important role is might have history of menstruation, presence of
bad habits, inflammatory processes.
As for men, it is obligatory for women to have done tests for sexually transmitted infections.
Infertility in women is caused by the same pathogens as in men.
Evaluation of the factors that may be the cause of infertility include:
• Checking rectal temperature for 3 months (indicating ovulation);
• Radiography of the skull (may show a pituitary tumor). For the same purpose prescribed ophthalmic studies.
A blood test is taken to check the level of hormones. Infertility disorders in testosterone, prolactin, adrenal
hormones (DEA) and thyroid levels can be implicated.
To exclude abnormal development of the uterus and some gynecological diseases, an ultrasound is performed.
X-rays are carried out with the introduction of a contrast agent. This shows the size of the uterine mucosa and
its structure, makes it possible to evaluate the functionality of the fallopian tubes.
This procedure is called hysterosalpingography (GHA).
In some cases, laparoscopy is performed. This is an invasive diagnostic method inserting
an instrument with optics into the abdominal cavity. Condition of the uterus and ovaries are examined this way
After a full examination, the doctor estimates the chances of getting pregnant and recommends treatment options.