Orthopedic Diagnostics

In orthopedics there are a lot of diagnostic methods that allows to make a diagnosis, identify the cause
of the disease and prescribe the correct treatment. Interestingly, in this industry, not only imaging
methods (for example, x-rays), but also palpation and functional tests are used. Therefore,
orthopedic diagnostics is divided into manual and imaging ones.

Manual diagnostics
The musculoskeletal system of each person has individual characteristics. A general examination helps
the doctor to get acquainted with them and determine exactly where the pathology was located.
These methods include:
1. Palpation – in other words, palpation of joints, muscles, spine.
2. Evaluation of the reserve of soft tissue movement.
3. Detection of sites that respond with pain to pressing (trigger points)
4. Use of special tools (for example, goniometers, to measure angles during movement of the joint)
5. Functional tests, when during the movements of the patient the doctor sees some irregularities,
imperceptible at rest.
The effectiveness of these diagnostic methods largely depends on the experience of the doctor,
so they do not always give a complete picture of the pathology.

Imaging methods
Allows to see œfrom the inside❠various pathologies of bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments.
Most popular methods are:
1. X-ray helps to detect fractures, arthrosis. The digital version of it has less radiation for a person.
2. Computed Tomography (CT) gives a clearer image, often used as a refinement method.
3. Ultrasonography is carried out mainly for examination of muscles and other soft tissues, detection
of fluid accumulation sites, which made it popular method in sport medicine
4. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) gives a three-dimensional image of the area under
investigationwhich makes this method well-informative

Specific examinations
Optical spinal examination is one of the special diagnostic methods. The program displays a
three-dimensional model of the spine, which lets a specialist to see functional and structural
pathologies of the spine
Correct selection of orthopedic liners or special shoes is possible after analyzing the weight on the foot.
This method appeared with the development of computer technology.
Bone density is recommended for an elderly patient which allows early detection of osteoporosis.

What are the diseases detected withdiagnostics?
A full examination allows identification of any known pathology of musculoskeletal system.
The most frequent of them are:
• Dislocations;
• Incorrectly accreted fractures;
• Curvature of the spine (scoliosis, kyphosis, etc.);
• Arthritis, arthrosis and their consequences (for example, ankylosis);
• Limb deformities;
• Stretching, tearing and other damage to soft tissue.

Modern computer methods in conjunction with manual examination by an orthopedist provide the most
complete picture of the state of the musculoskeletal system and allows determination of the correct therapy.

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